HIV/AIDS Related Risk Behaviors Among Transgender – Virus Example

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"HIV/AIDS Related Risk Behaviors Among Transgender" is a worthy example of a paper on the virus. The study explores factors related to HIV risk and status amongst transgendered individuals. In the United States, the transgender population has been subject to tumultuous conditions arising from the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The review gives an estimate of prevalence in risk behaviours and HIV infection of transgendered individuals. Indeed, the development of surveys focusing on collaboration with transgendered personalities was instrumental; furthermore, interviews were evident to ascertain the effects of HIV. The conclusion indicated that HIV/AIDS was a serious concern in healthcare affecting the transgender community.

Most respondents engaged in sexual risk activities at least once in three months and had no belief in susceptibility to infection. Results also showed that most people engaged commercial sex workers in unprotected sex due to harsh living conditions. Despite humanity, having knowledge on HIV/AIDS, the ability for protection is compromised hence vulnerability to the virus. Research indicates that female youths are prone to high-risk HIV infection. In the United States of America, women are at superior risk of contracting HIV/AIDS compared populations.

Behaviours in transgender persons lead to the acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.           Critique of literature According to Raekiela et al. , (2011) indicates that surveillance fails to provide adequate data on the spread of HIV amongst the transgender populace. However, evidence posits that transgender women as well as (MTF) transgender persons are at an elevated level of contracting the disease. Indeed, the study exudes an elevated level of external validity since the participants are from the broader New York City. Indeed, the study explores divergent means of deducing issues concerning the transgendered persons as evident in the methodology where an intervention framework that was standardized played a fundamental role.

However, the authors fail to establish a causal relationship between transgendered persons and their HIV status. Consequently, it becomes intricate to determine whether the risks are indeed high or postulated. Apparently, the conclusion validity is strong given the supposition that it derives its foundation from the discussion. As such, corrective measures are likely to arise. As such, the authors assert “ Participants reported a significant decrease in the number of sexual partners 3 months after the intervention” (to Raekiela et al. , 2011, p 475). According to Wilson (2010), transgender persons denoted as males yet conform to female tendencies.

However, the authors fail to indicate that a greater population infected with HIV presumably because of failure to understand their nature. The authors acknowledge the prevailing status of health workers and the funding needed to combat the scourge. Indeed, the study exudes a strong external validity that is apparent in the association amidst partners. As such, it becomes simple to deduce the relationship between transgender females. However, the internal validity is questionable since persons participating in the process are chosen and predetermined.

The methods used are divergent in nature making it easier to establish construct validity, which is sturdy. As evident in the postulations arising from the discussions, the conclusion validity studies since it gives direction for future processes as evident in interventions. According to Herbst (2008), even though the HIV prevalence rate in the USA is low, the increase rate in the 1990s was outrageous after being non-existent since the 1950s as apparent amidst transgender persons. However, it is not clear to all the stakeholders that the HIV spread was a menace that extended to all the sectors and society.

Critics in the Diaspora have stated that up to the years of the millennium, the official response of the American Government on AIDS scourge was muted because of the government’ s failure to take action because of denial and suppression.   Indeed, the study exudes a strong external validity that is apparent in the literature review that addresses divergent concerns that could limit the study. An example is “ Six search strategies were implemented to systematically identify reports providing HIV prevalence and incidence rates, percentage of transmission” (Herbst, 2008, p 2).

It becomes simple to deduce the relationship between transgender females. However, the internal validity is doubtful since the participants are chosen in a non-random. Based on the inconclusive results emanating from the methodology and results, the construct and conclusion validity is weak. According to Rumens (2010), it is apparent that the study targeted accessing the scenery of correlation in transgender, the influencing factors that make the culprits engage in risky practices and the transgender HIV/Aids community in the workplace.   To establish this, the study conducted a live interview.

Additionally, the questionnaire captured ideas from diverse participants. The study covered broad social topics. The study found out that, the acceptance of homosexuality is increasing in the community, an individual and interpersonal factor derails the MSM behaviours and that there is a reasonable awareness of the HIV risks among the participants. The study concluded that practising risky sex and postponing HIV test is attributable to players’ conflicts. The study effectively explains the vital concept concerning the risk associated with transgender sexual activities.

The study has a strong external validity since the research test is selected randomly and standard methods aid in collecting data hence the scenario may be utilized in generalizing the situation in other regions. Nevertheless, the paper’ s internal validity is questionable; participants’ perceptions may affect the result of the study. The study has a sturdy constructive validity; the use of live interview and questionnaires is an appropriate method of measuring the subject under study. According to Wei (2011), the study sought to analyze the impact of social marketing model in influencing transgender victims to take HIV/STI test.

To examine this, the study conducted an extensive literature review contrasting the impact exerted by three models; social media, pre-interventions and control groups. The study utilized the data sorted out by two authors in explaining the situation. The data obtained were analyzed using statistical models, which found that social marketing significantly influenced the participant’ s stand. The study concluded that the studies available provided limited evidence on the matter. The paper provides a good analysis, however; the validity of the study is questionable in some levels.

The external validity of the study is weak since it entrusts the assessment of the relevancy of sorted materials on two authors. Moreover, the study bases its evaluations in the comparisons of the three models only. This also puts the internal validity to be questionable since the result can be different in other scenarios. The methodology is not fully justifiable hence, a generalization of the results becomes challenging. However, the study observes reasonable construct validity; the study compares different studies that survey various aspects of social marketing on the client’ s decision.

This ensures a broad survey of the field an approach that can effectively test the subject under study. Lastly, the research effectively establishes strong conclusion validity. The study keenly observes that the data available did not address the matter comprehensively hence; an approach that is more inclusive is essential to develop a clear picture of the subject matter. Summary Transgendered people have been subject to societal discrimination since ancient time hence experiencing adverse health outcomes that include HIV/AIDS. Transgender describes individuals who do not adhere to traditional gender conventions, which include intersex persons, transsexuals and crossdressers; furthermore, it depicts gender identity.

Research asserts that high HIV prevalence is apparent amongst the transgendered people. Evidence shows that HIV infection arises from risky sexual activities that include inconsistent protection and having many sexual partners, which are common amidst transgendered persons. The extent to which drug abuse contributes to the transmission of the disease in the transgender community is equally clear. Lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is a risk factor for infection because of a limited supply of information amongst the transgendered community.

This is equally the case for poverty, which is the main contributor to the infection of HIV/AIDS amidst transgendered persons.


Herbst, J. et al., (2008). Estimating HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors of Transgender Persons in the United States: A Systematic Review. AIDS Behav 12:1–17

Raekiela, T. (2011). Girlfriends: Evaluation of an HIV-Risk Reduction Intervention for Adult Transgender Women. AIDS Education and Prevention, 23(5), 469–478, 2011

Rumens, N. (2010). Firm friends: exploring the supportive components in gay men's workplace friendships. The Sociological Review, 58: 135–155. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-954X.2009.01879.x

Wilson, E et al., (2010). Sexual Risk Taking Among Transgender Male-to-Female Youths With Different Partner Types. American Journal of Public Health, 2010, Vol 100, No. 8

Wei C, et al., (2011). Social marketing interventions to increase HIV/STI testing uptake among men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD009337. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009337.

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