Sale of Organs for Transplantation – Transplantation&Donation Example

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'Sale of Organs for Transplantation' is an excellent example of a paper on transplantation and donation.   In contemporary times, various convenience in life contributes to immediate access to vast amounts and a variety of food and medications, as well as exposures to hazards that are detrimental to health. As a result, more chronic illnesses continue to emerge in increasing patterns and make some recommended interventions that necessitate organ transplantation. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “ organ transplantation is often the only treatment for end state organ failures, such as liver and heart failure.

Although end-stage renal disease patients can be treated through other renal replacement therapies, kidney transplantation is generally accepted as the best treatment both for quality of life and cost-effectiveness” (par. 1). However, due to the significant number of patients requiring organ transplantation, the limited number of donors make this procedure impossible to undertake. The sale of organs continues to be a controversial issue where Western countries, like the United States, still rely on organ donation as a source of transplantation. In view of the glaring need for increased sources of organs to be donated to address the numbers of patients requiring transplantation, organ sale has often been regarded as the only viable solution.

Proponents of organ sale argue that saving the lives of these patients is of prime importance and making organs available through regulating the sale would significantly help in addressing the limited supply (Andre and Velasquez). On the other hand, those who oppose organ sale contend that life should be placed at the hands of the Divine maker and resorting to buying organs from whatever sources would be detrimental to the dignity of man (The Sale of Human Organs).

In this regard, the current discourse would present relevant issues and concerns pertinent to organ sales. One hereby contends that due to the sanctity of life, people should be made to decide on the means to extend life through exhausting every possible means, even through organ transplantation.   As such, regulators should approve the selling of organs with proper governance to increase their supply on a global scale. Annotated Bibliography Andre, Claire, and Manuel Velasquez. "Kidneys for Sale. " 2014.

Santa Clara University.   http: //www. scu. edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys. html. 11 March 2014 The authors presented moral issues related to organ selling. The pros and cons of selling were clearly expounded where proponents were noted to assert the prime importance of saving lives as the key reason for agreeing to organ selling. Likewise, facts were revealed that indicates the magnitude of people who require organ transplantation; but were not immediately made possible due to the lack of available donors. Those who oppose the sale of organs rationalize the Divine plan in man’ s life, as well as the perceived inability of poor patients to avail of organs when made available for sale. The source contains crucial information that effectively presents unbiased arguments.

As such, it is published from a reputable source which makes the information reliable and credible. It also recommends other sources for further readings that could support needed arguments. The information contained in this source would be useful in the current paper due to the veracity of the arguments made; as well as the credibility of the authors. Likewise, being currently published make the contents updated and reliable. Rothman, S.M. and D. J. Rothman.

"The Hidden Cost of Organ Sale. " 13 February 2006. American Journal of Transplantation. http: //www. societyandmedicine. columbia. edu/organs_challenge. shtml. 11 March 2014. The article presented the controversial nature of organ sale and provided reasons why proponents argue for its institutionalization; while opponents evaluate possibilities for inequality and injustice. The need for market regulation was also expounded; as well as issues concerning discerning who could be qualified as sellers. In addition, the impact of organ selling to the medical profession was also more closely reviewed. The information contained in the article is comprehensive and unbiased. The source is published in a peer-reviewed journal which increased its credibility and reliability.

The arguments presented were diverse and duly supported by authoritative sources which are aptly references for cross-checking. One would definitely be using the information contained in this article as it contains valid assertions which are aptly cited and referenced. However, since this is published in 2006, the information could be augmented with more recent data to increase its reliability and validity. Shroff, Sunil. "Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation. " 2009. Indian Journal of Urology. http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779960/. 11 March 2014. The article presented organ donation and transplantation in India noted as one of the leading sources of kidneys.

There were explicitly enumerated rules governing the donation transplantation in India covering aspects such as living donors, those declared brain dead, and regulations through authorized committees. Authority and working guidelines for the Authorization Committee were also expounded. Finally, interpretation of the law and ethical concerns were also discussed. The information contains strengths in terms of providing information on how the organ sale could be regulated through the experience of India. There are some relevant concerns that were discussed including interpretation of the law, as well as ethical and moral issues.

The only weakness noted it the applicability of the information to Western countries, like the U. S. One could still use some information from the article particularly that which emphasized ethical concerns and how organ sales could be regulated. Likewise, since it article was published fairly recently, the information should be validated with more currently published articles to increase its reliability and applicability. "The Sale of Human Organs. " 2011. Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/organs-sale/. 11 March 2014. The source presented a comprehensive overview of the sale of human organs by discussing topics which include: different types of organ sale systems; arguments promoting organ sale; the perceived harm or risk; the concept of altruism; inducements and consents; and finally, exploitation, instrumentalization, and objectification. There are evident strengths in the way the information was clearly structured; including comprehensiveness of contents.

However, since the contents were designed for philosophy practitioners, justifications and rationalizations veer towards this discipline. Otherwise, it contains objective arguments that present both sides of organ selling. The information contained herein would definitely be useful in the current discourse.

There are unbiased arguments that clearly explained both sides of the issue. Likewise, it is a reputable source that makes the contents validly supported by authoritative sources. World Health Organization. "Human organ transplantation. " 2014. who. int. http: //www. who. int/transplantation/organ/en/. 11 March 2014. The source explained the essence of human organ transplantation and provides links to other authoritative sources on the subject matter. Aside from a discussion of the overview on the topic, the site would enable readers to access additional information regarding donation and transplantation; as well as outcomes of organ transplantation. Since the World Health Organization (WHO) is a reputable source of information regarding health-related issues, the information contained herein is highly credible and reliable.

Likewise, the availability and ready access to additional information enable the reader to provide additional support to arguments on the subject matter. Although the site is authoritative on this topic, not much detailed information was provided regarding the pros and cons of organ sales. As such, it could only be used as a source of information in the introduction portion where a general overview of human organ transplantation could be discussed.


Andre, Claire, and Manuel Velasquez. "Kidneys for Sale." 2014. Santa Clara University. 11 March 2014.

Rothman, S.M. and D.J. Rothman. "The Hidden Cost of Organ Sale." 13 February 2006. American Journal of Transplantation. 11 March 2014.

Shroff, Sunil. "Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation." 2009. Indian Journal of Urology. 11 March 2014.

"The Sale of Human Organs." 2011. Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 11 March 2014.

World Health Organization. "Human organ transplantation." 2014. 11 March 2014.

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