Maternal Vitamin Deficiencies – Pregnancy Example

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"Maternal Vitamin Deficiencies" is a delightful example of a paper on pregnancy. Maternal vitamin deficiencies: anemia, iron deficiency- the amount of hemoglobin is less than 110g/L, it is related to the red blood cell loss that can be caused by decreased consumption and absorption of iron or by intestinal worms during pregnancy. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal mortality during pregnancy or low birth weight in infants. Iron-folic supplements can prevent all of these risks. The low iron level can reduce the number of thyroid hormones, serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin, and it can provoke maternal hypothyroxinemia during the pregnancy.

(Shah P, 2014). Calcium deficiency. Clinical trials showed that calcium supplements during pregnancy can prevent gestational hypertension, preterm birth, and preeclampsia. Women over 18 need 1.000 mg of Ca per day and less than 18 - 1.3000 mg of Ca per day. A woman`s body can absorb only 500 mg of Ca at a time, that`s why pregnant women have to intake several small doses of Ca per day. (Scholl TO, 2014) Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can provoke maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and lead to disorders of the fetus’ s neurological development and further cretinism as a severe symptom.

Iodine requirement is higher during pregnancy to 50 %. (Zimmermann MB, 2012)Therefore, a pregnant woman needs 220mcg of iodine per day and a breastfeeding woman -290mcg. ( Delange F, 2007) Salt iodization can reduce iodine deficiency. (Elizabeth N. Pearce, 2008)Vitamin A deficiency occurs when the concentration of retinol is less than 20 mcg/dL. It can lead to placental dysfunction, preterm birth, and development of the maternal anemia. Therefore, a pregnant woman needs 750-770 mcg of vitamin A per day while a breastfeeding woman needs 1200-1300 mcg per day.

( Gé rard Pascal, 2010) Children's vitamin deficiency: Anemia in newborns can cause tissue hypoxia and increase the risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension. Newborns at age of 9-24 months who have low birth weight, drink cow`s milk before 1 year old as it poor in iron or receive non-iron-fortified food are at higher risk. Breastfed infants require 11 mg of iron per day. ( Morton SB, 2014)

References

Elizabeth N. Pearce. (2008). Iodine in Pregnancy: Is Salt Iodization Enough?. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453047/

Delange F.(2007). Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation, and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18053281

Zimmermann MB.(2012). The effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and infancy. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742605

Gérard Pascal. (2010). Vitamin A in pregnancy: requirements and safety limits. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/5/1325s.full

Radhika MS.(2002). Effects of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on maternal and child health. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12118649

Morton SB.(2014). Maternal and perinatal predictors of newborn iron status. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228422

Shah P.(2014). Fetal Anemia With Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension: A Report of 3 Cases. . National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265468

Huerta S.(2002). Vitamin A deficiency in a newborn resulting from maternal hypovitaminosis A after biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of morbid obesity. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145017

Scholl TO.(2014). Maternal calcium metabolic stress and fetal growth. National Center for Biotechnology Information Online. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24500145

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