Difference between Methamphetamine and Amphetamine – Poisoning, Toxicology&Environmental Health Example

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"Difference between Methamphetamine and Amphetamine" is a praiseworthy example of a paper on the health system. Q1. Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Methamphetamine (methylated amphetamine) and Amphetamine share some of the peculiar aspects when it comes to their kinetics and dynamics in human bodies. One such pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics effect includes what world health organization (WHO) calls “ amphetamine-type stimulant” . They have a stimulating effect and that is why they are being abused so much by both the informed health workers and over the counter consumers in equal measure.   This dyad set of drugs contains one effect that simulates each other.

They both have a strong adrenaline effect when taken inside the body. The only difference between amphetamine and methamphetamine is one. Methamphetamine is neurotoxic with toxicities of higher thresholds of blockading dopamine and serotonin neurons in the central nervous system. For amphetamine is not neurotoxic. The also methamphetamine once taken its metabolized into amphetamine and other toxic substance       Origin of Methamphetamine & amphetamine The first pharmaceutical amphetamine was Benzedrine. At this time, it was used as an inhaler to treat congestive respiratory system illness.

On the other side, methamphetamine is one of the oldest drugs of addiction and with a strong potential for abuse. It was first synthesized in the year 1887 by a Romanian chemist known as Lazar Edelman. It was not used clinically until the year 1920 when it was resynthesized to treat asthma, hay fever, and colds. Its strong debut was in the year 1930 when the United States of America pharmaceutical company promoted it as treatment of rhinitis and asthma. Routes of Methamphetamine& amphetamine The route of methamphetamine amphetamines is many as the longer they can reach plasma levels.

They are usually taken inside of the body or administered (therapeutic purpose) in a number of routes. Methamphetamine is water-soluble and can be smoked, snorted especially in its crystalline form, injected and is usually absorbed in a faster rate in the body than non-methylated amphetamine.     Names of Methamphetamine & amphetamine Is mostly known as meth, crystal meth, Amp, white cross, La glass as others call it. Other areas outside the United States call it Tina, Christina, Cris, or Cristy. Q 2. Drugs that fall in schedule III have become a common household item in many youths.

They are being abused and the stats are startling. It has been shown through many surveys that the over the counter and prescription drugs are becoming another hub of drug abuse. Surprisingly or perhaps even shockingly, these drugs are being abused by the informed health care workers who should take responsibility for enlightening the public of the dangers of indulging in abusing these drugs (Callaghan, et al. , 2012). Q3. Methylated amphetamine has more corporeal effects than pure amphetamine. Some of the extra effects of the methamphetamine to the body are impaired speech, rapid pulse, dry mouth, constipation, dizziness, and insomnia.

The share side effects include euphoric feelings, a sense of increased energy, and a reduction in appetite. This drug also increases concentration and motivation. This a re-desired body reaction to methamphetamine. Other undesired body reaction to the drugs includes drying of mouth headaches, weight loss, and anxiety and nervousness. The worst body reaction to this drug is the habit-forming effect of using it. Methamphetamine is known to be neurotoxic. Q 4.                                                                                           An addict of this psychostimulant drugs will display a number of symptoms that are suggestive of addiction have already taken over.

The craving is the first symptom that denotes that addiction is taking root. This usually is caused by the symptoms that come with withdrawal symptoms. In addition, the person will develop tolerance on the drug after some time. This is shown by a slow increase in the dosage that he or she takes daily. The addict will also show symptoms of dependence where he or she cannot do without the drug.

He will be dependent on the drug. The final symptom is methamphetamine psychosis due to addiction. Tremens also occur in a person who uses methylated amphetamines because of those alcohol components. Q5. Methamphetamine has a double addictive effect that is physiological. This comes from the alcohol component and the construct of amphetamine. Its effect is on the brain reward center. This brain reward center is usually induced by continuous and chronic high dose exposure to this drug. The drug causes the release of dopamine and glutamate. Continuous production of these two chemicals in the brain will eventually lead to the production of phosphorylated CREB.

This chemical construct persists in the neurons and accumulates over time following chronic exposure to methamphetamine. The result is the formation of a protein that is the master control of the brain reward center that causes addiction-related structural changes in the brain (Callaghan, et al. , 2012). This is how methamphetamine physiologically causes addiction to the chronic user of the drug. Q6 Population using the Methamphetamine Globally, in the year 2013, the persons said to be using methamphetamine is said to be 30.40 million.

Though it was last on the order of substance, being abused its number was significant (UN Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014. pg. 83).     Age of users The starting age of users according to researches show that in between the age of 25-30 years is 43%. For this age bracket, the research revealed that 70% of our health care workers.   Deaths The death resulting from methamphetamine and its related complication is placed at 1.5% in the United State of America        Effect on the healthcare system Most of the healthcare facilities are now making spacious rehabilitation facilities to cater to the addict of substances such as methamphetamine.

Addiction to substances accounts for 5.67% of disease burden in the United State of America.   Families According to a survey of the family with a patient who is an addict, it said that 40% of the family resources are usually directed toward either buying the substance of abuse such as methamphetamine or for rehabilitating the patient. Q7.Neurotoxic levels methylated are not reversible by an antidote. The overdose of methylated amphetamine is moderately common and fetal when it happens. The symptom that comes with the overdose is as follows: The patient feels chills, fever, and sweating.

On the patient, also present with muscle spasms and aching of the back. Some will come convulsing, with no urine output and dilated pupils that have blurred vision. Breathing is usually with difficulty and lips appear blue. The blood pressure is usually high at the first then a dramatic drop in the blood pressure (Arceloux, 2012, p. 193). Q8. In case of overdose, there should be pre-hospital and hospital management of the effects. The pre-hospital management includes care of patients for the seizures, loss of competent airway, cardiac dysrhythmias, and trauma.

Managing addiction to methamphetamine involves slow withdrawal from the drug while managing the reactions of withdrawal. The patients should be well monitored since relapse is easy. Therefore, the drugs should be kept out of reach of the patient as canceling goes on to increase the will power of stopping the addiction. Q9. In the United States, the drug is controlled and cannot be sold over the counter without permission. That is one of the control measures of abuse.

In addition, the drug is classified as schedule ii meaning they have been recognized as a substance with high potential of abuse though with medical use. In addition, they recognize that the abuse of drugs has severe psychological or physical dependence. Possession of methamphetamine should be made illegal with heavy penalties on it. Healthcare workers should also be educated over the same and be liable to serve a sentence upon the negation of the policy on controlled drugs.                                                                  

References

Arceloux, D. G. (2012). Medical toxicology of drug abuse: Synthesized chemicals and psychoactive plants. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Callaghan, R. C., Cunningham, J. K., Sykes, J., & Kish, S. J. (2012). Increased risk of Parkinson's disease in individuals hospitalized with conditions related to the use of methamphetamine or other amphetamine-type drugs. Drug and alcohol dependence, 120(1), 35-40.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime. (2005). World drug report 2005: Volume 1. Vienna: UN, Office on Drugs and Crime.

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