Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Prevention, Therapy – Musculoskeletal System Example

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"Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Prevention, Therapy" is a perfect example of a paper on the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis refers to a disease of the bones, which makes bones lose density and exposes them to high chances of breaking. Osteoporosis weakens the bones so much that one can easily get fractures in the course of normal activities or a slight fall. Even though osteoporosis majorly affects females, their male counterparts are not immune to the disease. In its advanced phase, osteoporosis can cause fractures even if there is the slightest stress on the bones.

Despite the fact that it is not always certain that an individual will develop osteoporosis, there are certain risk factors that increase the chances of suffering from the debilitating disease. The risk factors that could easily make an individual susceptible to osteoporosis such as excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, inadequate hormones (testosterone), family history, ethnicity, age gender, low body weight, physical inactivity, medications, and poor diet among others.   With respect to J. E, this paper will explore excessive alcohol consumption and unbalanced diet as major risk factors that make the patient vulnerable to osteoporosis. Excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to a significant loss of bone mass (density), thus exposing a person to the possibility of suffering from bone fractures (Bartl & Frisch, 2009).   There is vast evidence pointing at alcohol abuse as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in males who overindulge in alcohol.

Many male alcohol-consuming patients who seek medical attention are often diagnosed with low bone density, which makes them susceptible to fractures. Excessive alcohol consumption inhibits calcium intake and reservation in the body. Too much intake of alcohol inhibits the absorption of calcium because it impairs the functioning of the pancreas and also affects the liver, thus impairing its ability to activate vitamin D.

According to Smolin and Grosvenor (2012), too much consumption of alcohol results in calcium imbalance in the body, which in turn impairs the formation of and maintenance of healthy bones.   Further, alcohol stimulates the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which utilizes the body’ s calcium reserves thus leaving inadequate amounts for healthy bone formation and maintenance (Mahan, Escott-Stump, Raymond & Krause, 2012). J.E drinks several alcoholic drinks a week, which is an absolute abuse of alcohol.

Consequently, he is likely to suffer fractures because his high alcohol consumption tendency exposes him to have low bone density. Consequently, J.E should reduce the number of alcoholic drinks that he consumes per week or quit alcohol in order to reduce his osteoporosis risk factors. In addition, J.E reveals he is on unbalanced dietary meals. Poor diet is known as a major risk factor for osteoporosis. Healthy bones require an adequate supply of calcium to the body. Inadequate intake of the nutrient may impair bone formation and result in bones with low density (Legato, 2010).

Smolin and Grosvenor (2012) assert that low intake of calcium can lead to low bone density and hence fractures. To prevent this situation, one needs to eat balanced meals with an adequate supply of calcium. J.E’ s unbalanced meals may lead to low calcium intake thereby leading to low bone density. Consequently, J.E is at high risk of suffering from osteoporosis. As such J. E needs to include fruits and vegetables regularly in his meals to get potassium and vitamin C.

He should also consume fat-free milk and seek calcium supplements to ensure strong bones. He also needs adequate vitamin D to boost the metabolism of Vitamin C and prevent the loss of calcium through urine.


Bartl, R., & Frisch, B. (2009). Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, prevention, therapy. Berlin: Springer.

Legato, M. J. (2010). Principles of gender-specific medicine. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Mahan, L. K., Escott-Stump, S., Raymond, J. L., & Krause, M. V. (2012). Krause's food & the nutrition care process. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Saunders.

Smolin, L. A. & Grosvenor, M.B. (2012). Nutrition: Science and Applications, 3rd Edition. Ney York, NY: Wiley Global Education.

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