Anatomy of Prostate Gland – Men's Reproductive Health Example

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"Anatomy of Prostate Gland" is an outstanding example of a paper on men's reproductive health. The prostate gland provides 70% of the seminal fluid released by males (Deters, 2011). It is located underneath the bladder, anterior to the rectum, and is the size of a chestnut. Its location is particularly important to note that it encloses a part of the urethra (Zieve, 2009). Its duct serves the urinary tract that connects to the penile urethra. The gland is divided into many parts: peripheral, central, anterior, fibromuscular stroma, and transition zones, which surrounds the urethra and from which BPH originates (Deters, 2011). Symptoms of BPH Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) may manifest as increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, decreased volume of urine, or a sensation of incomplete emptying.

Probable complications are acute urinary retention (AUR), impaired bladder emptying, renal failure, recurrent urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or gross hematuria (Deters, 2011). Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia The involvement of agonist and receptor The continued production of testosterone by the testes results in the increase in the levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (Page et al. , 2006), which is the result of testosterone conversion by type II 5-α reductase ( Rhoerborn et al. , 2002).

The increased levels of DHT are detected by α 1 adrenergic receptors in cell nuclei (Lepor, 2005; Deters, 2011). Cell Proliferation Stimulation of α 1 adrenergic receptors results in the proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells comprising the prostate gland, resulting in prostate gland enlargement (Lepor, 2005; Deters, 2011). In particular, the connective tissue of the gland grows from 16.1% to 56.1%, smooth muscles by 20.2% to 59.3%, epithelium by 4.3% to 24.8%, and epithelial lumen by 5.3% to 21.9% (Lepor, 2005).

However, the enclosing capsule prevents the gland from expanding outward. Instead, the hyperplastic cells take over space where the urethra is normally located. This causes the impingement of the urethra attached to the prostate gland (The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2010). Bladder Outlet Obstruction The constriction of urethra then decreases the amount of urine released from the bladder. As a reaction, the detrusor muscles of the bladder work harder and undergo hypertrophy to counteract the effects of urethral constriction. Also, they increase their sensitivity, such that even small amounts of urine induce micturition (Deters.

2011). Further increase in contractile force of the detrusor muscles will eventually weaken the muscle, causing urinary retention (Deters, 2011)

References

Deters, L. A. (2011, August 4). Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437359-overview#aw2aab6b2b2aa.

Lepor, H. (2005). Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Aging Male Population. Rev Urol., 7(suppl 4).

The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (2010). Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Retrieved from: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/prostateenlargement/.

Page, S. T., Lin, D. W., Mostaghel, E. A., Hess, D. L., True, L. D., Amory, J. K., Nelson, P. S., Matsumoto, A. M., and Bremner, W. J. (2006). Persistent Intraprostatic Androgen Concentrations after Medical Castration in Healthy Men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(10).

Roehrborn, C., Boyle, P., Nickel, J. C., Hoefner, K., Andriole, G., ARIA3001, ARIA3002, and ARIA3003 Study Investigators (2002). Efficacy and safety of a dual inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 (dutasteride) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology, 60(3)

Zieve, D. (2009, August 8). Enlarged prostate. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000381.htm.

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