Pathogenic Bacteria in HIV – Infections Example

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'Pathogenic Bacteria in HIV' is a wonderful example of a paper on infections. Pathogenic Bacteria are those bacteria that are parasitic in nature and cause infections and diseases not only in humans but also in plants and animals. The diseases they cause are diverse in nature and include toothache, food poisoning and also certain types of cancer. Though some of the bacteria are potentially harmful as well as life-threatening, most of them do not put an end to their victims.   The pathogenic bacteria have received undue attention in the press and given the special name of “ flesh-eating bacteria” (Source: WebMD symptom checker) In medical terms they are known as Streptococci.

Only certain bacteria have a high mortality rate and put an end to their victim sooner or later as the case may seem.   While bacteria multiply, they also have the capacity to invent various strategies which are called bacterial pathogenicity. Pathogenic diseases lie dormant and are only discovered many years later. Some of these diseases are – peptic ulcer and HIV. It has been proved that “ the majority of AIDS patients suffer from metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. ” (Al-Bayati, 1999) When AIDS patients were examined they were found to possess a high prevalence of insufficient adrenalin and treating the patient with glucocorticoid resulted in HIV-infection.

Studies have found that HIV infected patients did suffer from metabolic and endocrine abnormalities that involved the adrenalin glands. In relation to the Immune system, the latest research has it that cells could promote chronic infections. In patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, cells are sent to fight the infection. What happens is that it actually enhances the development of bacterial infections (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) that remain permanent.

There is a building up of a sticky mucus found in the lungs which were formed by the loss inability of the epithelial cells to secrete the necessary fluid. (Science Daily, June 2005)  Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have presented new studies indicating that there are millions of beneficial bacteria present in the human gut which help to stave off damage to the lining of the intestines. Medzhitov, a research investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute spoke about the benefits of commensal bacteria saying that "They metabolize nutrients to enable us to absorb them more readily.

They aid in the early development of the gastrointestinal system. And they produce factors that prevent colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Our work, however, has revealed a role that is quite different. " (Medzhitov, 2004) Food can be contaminated with parasites that can prey upon its host’ s body while making absolutely no contribution to the host. One such parasite is the Cryptosporidium that is capable of causing very severe life-threatening diseases through contaminated food, especially in patients suffering from AIDS.

Some of the common parasites found in pork and fish are - Trichinella spiralis (trichinosis), Anisakis roundworm Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii.

References

National Jewish Medical and Research Center (2005, June 3). Immune-System Cells May Promote Chronic Infections. ScienceDaily.

Ruslan Medzhitov, 2004, Issue of the Journal cell, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (2004, July 23). Good Bacteria Trigger Proteins To Protect The Gut. ScienceDaily.

Food Safety A to Z Reference Guide www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/a2z-p.html

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