"Fungal Infections in Humans" is a great example of a paper on infections. Fungal diseases prevalent in humans are- Aspergillosis Candidiasis Blastomycosis Coccidioidomycosis Fungal Eye infections Ringworm Infection etc Any infection caused by a micro-organism, the invading organism to the human being is considered to be a battle between the host defense system and the pathogenic organism. The immune system plays a vital role in combating microbial attacks. The immune system encompasses various lines of defense. The first line of defense is non-specific, which prevents the entry of the microbe, it comprises the skin which prevents microbial entry, the lining of the nose and also the digestive system which has normal microbial flora to combat the invading pathogen. Besides, the body also produces numerous antimicrobial substances that either destroy or prevent pathogenic growth, these agents are called antibodies.
The white blood cells of the body specifically, the neutrophils and the monocytes, are capable of engulfing antigen, the invading pathogenic or infection causing microbe. As soon as the microbe invades, the number of these defense cells increases. At first, the neutrophils increase in number, however, the persistence of infection may lead to an increase in the number of monocytes.
In case of allergic reactions and parasitic infections the number of eosinophils increases. In overwhelming situations, where the body defense is unable to combat the infection the condition of the disease occurs. The immune response of the body As soon as the infection progresses, the immune system of the body responds to it by body generates killer T-cells which are capable of killing the microbe. The immune system also generates various agents or chemical molecules to hit and destroy the invading pathogen called antibodies.
These antibodies attach themselves to the neutrophils and target the invading microbe to form antigen (microbe) + antibody complex in order to destroy the micro-organism. Parasite An organism that lives either on or inside the host cell or organism. Parasites are capable of causing diseases, some of these diseases are curable while others are not. These parasites could be a virus, bacteria, fungi, or any other organism, they may weaken the immune system of the organism. Immunodeficiency occurs in an immune-compromised person. Transplant patients, where the immune system is suppressed to prevent graft rejection, diabetic patients, s or people suffering from HIV may have an altered immune system that does not work like a normal immune system. Some of these conditions are hereditary while others could be due to autosomal anomaly.
These are categorized as primary immunodeficiency which requires long term dependence on antibiotics and also a person may have to undergo stem cell transplantation. However, secondary immunodeficiency may be the result of poor nutrition or aging. In cancer patients due to chemotherapy or drugs taken by patients suffering from the rheumatic condition.
ReferencesHawksworth, D. L. 2001. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res, 105,1422-32.