Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections – Infections Example

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"Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections" is a delightful example of a paper on infections. Jin Lin is a 45-year-old man who has a 7-day history of pain of micturition, the temp of 38.7, and an altered pattern of voiding. Complaining of chills and bilateral lumbar pain, BP 110/70, PR75, RR 18, SPO2 96%.   Jin last voided 12hrs ago and noted swelling in the hypogastric region.   Jin works part-time in a video store and is the sole income earner in his household, supporting his wife and 2 children.   He has no sick leave due to taking leave due to sick children and is anxious over a number of issues and is contemplating self-discharging.

Jin has identified he is allergic to penicillin, tomatoes, and latex. What is UTI explain? UTI stands for urinary tract infection and entails all the infections that are associated with the urinary systems involving the bladder, the urethra, ureters, or kidneys. It is a bacterial infection that attacks any part of the urinary tract (Nicolle, 2014). What is the term for “ blood in the urine” ? Haematuria How would you manage Ji Lin’ s allergies? Management of Jin’ s allergy will be based on avoiding the allergy.

Since he is allergic to penicillin, Jin will be given other drugs in the same class of antibiotics but of the same mode of action as penicillin. The patient will also be advised to avoid materials that are made of latex as well as tomatoes since he is allergic to them (Nicolle, 2014)If this UTI is left untreated, what could potentially happen to the patient? Untreated urinary tract infections can result in serious consequences. These include permanent kidney damage especially in young children as a result of acute or chronic kidney infection, recurrent infections, and increased risk for premature delivery and low birth weight in women (Kass, Kernen & Carey, 2000). How would you manage your patient’ s anxiety and why could this be occurring? Anxiety can be experienced by anybody.

It is a normal response to a perceived threat or stressful event. The patient’ s anxiety can be managed by first identifying the cause of anxiety and then providing solutions. Other techniques such as breathing exercises and thought management can be utilized to solve the anxiety problem in a patient (Hannula et al, 2011).

The patients may be anxious as a result of work-related issues for example he is not entitled to sick leave and maybe worry about losing his job. He is the sole income earner and may be worried about his family in case he is hospitalized.   If protein is found in the kidneys, possible causes are? Healthy kidneys do not permit a significant amount of proteins to be filtered out in the glomerulus. Damage to the kidney as a result of diseases may allow the proteins to be filtered out.

High blood pressure and diabetes are some of the factors that may lead to kidney damage. Others include toxins, trauma, immune system disorders, and other infections (Hannula et al, 2011). If leukocytes/nitrates are found in urine the possible cause is a? Ideally, blood cells including leucocytes should be found in urine. However, in cases of kidney infections, bladder infections, or inflammation in the urinary tract as a result of immune disorders, allergies, or the presence of stone can result in blood getting into the urine (Lujan, 2009). If ketones are found in the urine, the possible causes are? Ketonuria is caused by renal glycosuria, diabetes, or glycogen storage disease.

Fasting, starvation, fever, anorexia, and vomiting can also cause Ketonuria (Nicolle, 2006 ). If glucose is found in the urine this can be indicative of? The presence of glucose in the urine may indicate untreated diabetes mellitus (Saks, 2008). Abnormalities of urine, detected by observation. The possible causes of urine are… . a) Pale? Very pale urine is an indication of diabetes insipidus. b) Dark brown? Medication for malaria such as chloroquine and primaquine as well as antibiotics such as metronidazole is the probable cause of dark brown urine.

Some urinary tract infections can also lead to dark brown urine (Splete, 2006). c) Red? Red urine colour indicates the presence of blood in urine as a result of an infection, cancer, enlarged prostate in male, kidney disease, or inflammation in the urinary tract. d) Bright yellow? Bright yellow urine may be caused by a lack of enough water in the body or dehydration. e) Blue or green? Blue or green urine may be caused by some dyes that are utilized in bladder and kidney tests.

Medications such as indomethacin and propofol can also result in blue/ green urine. Hypercalcemia and urinary tract infections may cause blue urine. The case study identifies 4 actual issues and 3 potential. For each actual and potential issue provide at least two implementations with rationales. Diagnosis Implementations Rational Acute pain related to inflammation and tissue trauma Relieve associated discomfort and pain by the implementation of appropriate pharmaceutical intervention. Give analgesics Administer NSAIDS Asses for any discomfort or pain  Take vital signs and compare them with the normal Administer opiod analgesia to block pain perception thereby control pain. The administration of NSAIDS prevents inflammation.       To detect any abnormality (Kass, Kernen & Carey, 2000).   Altered voiding pattern related to infection of the urinary tract as evidenced by the changes in the voiding pattern Administer prescribed medication Monitor the input and output chart Prescribed medication such as antibiotics will prevent the condition from persisting Anxiety-related to fear of unknown medical condition and intervention Reassure the patient and answer the questions raised Identify the problem that is giving rise to anxiety and provide a solution To relay anxiety To make the patient relaxed and comfortable (Hannula et al. , 2011).   Knowledge deficit related to infection as evidenced by verbalization Talk to the patient and educate them about the disease, causes, risk factors, and prevention The patient will be able to understand the disease process and will be cooperative in the care (Saks, 2008).   Disturbed sleep pattern related to pain and discomfort Identify the usual sleeping pattern and ensure comfort during sleep To improve the pattern of sleeping Make patient comfortable risk of hyperthermia related inflammation Administer the prescribed NSAIDs Take vital signs NSAID prevents inflammation   Monitoring vital signs will help identify any abnormality and thereby intervene appropriately (Kass, Kernen & Carey, 2000). Impaired self-esteem related to infection  Talk to the patient and advise them about the disease and hospital interventions To boost the patient’ s esteem Make patient informed (Yang, 2013).     Jin wants to self-discharge.

What does this mean and what do you do about this as an Enrolled nurse? Self-discharge is a situation where a patient refuses hospital admission and requests to be allowed to go home under medications (Yang, 2013). An enrolled nurse should be able to inform the patient about the limitations of such a decision and inform the physician in charge of reviews and advice.


Hannula, A., Venhola, M., Perhomaa, M., Pokka, T., Renko, M., & Uhari, M. (2011). Imaging the urinary tract in children with urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatrica, 100(12), e253-e259. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02391.x

Kass, E., Kernen, K., & Carey, J. (2000). Pediatric urinary tract infection and the necessity of complete urological imaging. BJU International, 86(1), 94-96. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.2000.00728.x

Lujan, A. (2009). Detection, prevention, and management of urinary tract infections. American Journal Of Infection Control, 16(1), 38. doi:10.1016/0196-6553(88)90015-6

Nicolle, L. (2006 ). Prophylaxis: Recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Infection, 20(S3), S203-S205. doi:10.1007/bf01704376

Nicolle, L. (2014). Urinary tract infection in long-term care facilities. Healthcare Infection, 19(1), 4. doi:10.1071/hi13043

Saks, M. (2008). When is a Urinary Tract Infection Really a Urinary Tract Infection?. Emergency Medicine News, 30(11), 6. doi:10.1097/01.eem.0000340958.84259.78

Splete, H. (2006). Antibiotic Resistance Doesn't Raise UTI Risk in Long-Term Care Patients. Internal Medicine News, 39(5), 49. doi:10.1016/s1097-8690(06)73108-0

Yang, S. (2013). Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection. The Korean Journal Of Urogenital Tract Infection And Inflammation, 8(2), 73. doi:10.14777/kjutii.2013.8.2.73

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