Role of Various Institutions and Parties in the Development of Health Policy – Health System Example

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'Role of Various Institutions and Parties in the Development of Health Policy' is an outstanding example of a paper on the health system.   Health policy is a critical component of the society, especially in the United States where the federal government plays an active role. Besides enacting health policies, the implementation of the policies must be beyond reproach in order to win the public appeal. Since health is a critical sector of any economy, several governmental and non-governmental groups within the United States have taken active roles in the area.

Ideally, the federal government, States, and non-governmental organizations have played fundamental roles in the development of health policy in the United States (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013). This paper discusses the role that the Congress, President, Supreme Court, State governments, and special interest groups play in the development of health policy in the United States. Discussion The President’ s role The United States President plays a crucial role in the formulation and implementation of health policies that affect citizens. For instance, President Obama came up with Obama Care that aimed at providing medical insurance to all American citizens at affordable rates.

Although the bill came under sharp scrutiny and criticism, the law has made health care accessible to many Americans, particularly low-income earners. Since the President is the head of the Federal government, he has the responsibility of ensuring that all health policies deliver tangible results in terms of affordability and accessibility of health care services within the United States (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013). Federal Congress’ role All legislative work takes place in the Congress where the Congressmen deliberate and pass a number of policies, including health policies. The current parliament, which is the 113theCongress, has been proactive as far as the enactment of various health policies is concerned.

President Barrack Obama will go down American history for his famous Medicaid. Medicaid has performed well in some American States in as much as some states are still opposed to the health scheme. Primarily, Obama’ s second term kicked off amid broad criticisms over whether Medicare stood a chance to reduce the deficit. Overall, Congress did tremendous work in the development of health policies that will transform the American health care sector in the future.

Kaiser Family Foundation was at the forefront of the debate that raged across many States. The Congressmen formulated and passed health policies that resonated with the manifesto of the Democrats with Obama at the center stage (Congress. Com, 2015). Owing to the bicameral nature of the United States Parliament, both the Senate and the House of Representatives have an enormous task in ensuring that all pieces of legislation pertaining to health conform to the statutory threshold, especially before they are enacted. It implies that both houses must demonstrate active involvement in the development of health policies, just as they did with the Affordable Care Act, famously known as Obama Care.

Congressmen have played their legislative role in enacting various health policies over the years and it is up to the courts to determine the constitutionality of such laws. Lobbyists and special interest groups are also welcome to question the viability of the health policies passed in Congress. The role played by State Governments Since the United States, as a nation, consists of both the federal government and the State governments, the enactment and implementation of any health policy must be received well across the board.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), commonly known as Obama Care, has faced sharp criticisms and rejection in some States whose representatives deem it as a sham. Currently, a great debate rages on whether individual States ought to implement Medicaid Expansion. Since the United States is one nation, all State governments ought to apply any health policy passed by the Congressmen. It will not only bring uniformity in the ailing health sector, but it will also revamp health care systems in terms of affordability and accessibility.

Political ties have heavily come into play as far as the public opinion on the implementation of Medicaid is concerned. Republicans are a bit skeptical while the Democrats support the health policy overwhelmingly (USA. gov, 2014). Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States is the topmost arbitrator of all legal and policy issues, including health matters. After Congress has passed the Medicaid program, the courts have to ensure that all health policies are adhered to within respective jurisdictions.

Any matter, that appears to have surpassed local adjudication, goes straight to the Supreme Court. Affordable Care Act (ACA) has attracted admiration and discontent in equal measure. It means that the Supreme Court must adjudicate on the legality of the implementation and further expansion of Medicaid across the United States. The Supreme Court reserves the mandate to hear and determine any health policy of national importance like Obama Care, particularly if the policy attracts support and opposition from both sides of the political divide (Supreme Court of the United States, 2015). Lobbyists/special interest groups  Political advocacy groups, special interest groups, and lobbyists have a special role to play as far as the development and implementation of health policies are concerned.

Such groups enjoy the expanded democratic space in the United States to criticize and litigate against any health policy that they deem inappropriate. However, special interest groups and lobbyists must guard against over-politicizing health issues because it will be detrimental to American citizens. In this regard, it is worth noting that special interest groups have been active in the development and implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (OpenSecrets. org, 2014). Lobbying is huge in the United States where several lobby groups lobby the U. S.

federal and state governments to take certain actions or directions, especially in the health and financial sectors. In this respect, several interest groups have protected and discredited certain health policies passed by Congress. Since the labor unions cannot marshal enough impetus on their own to push the federal and state governments, they need political advocacy groups to help them. Doctors across the United States have been particularly agitated by the Affordable Care Act that President Obama fought hard to enact.

It is so because, in as much as the law may ease the low-income earning citizens of the medical burden, the doctors’ fate lies in the balance. Doctor Benjamin Carson, who is eyeing a political seat, has been especially vocal on Obama Care. He has openly discredited the health policy together with other special interest groups (OpenSecrets. org, 2014). Summary The health sector in the United States needs radical reforms in order to ensure affordability and accessibility to all citizens. The Affordable Care Act is one health policy that aims at achieving the same objective although it has attracted widespread criticism.

The development and implementation of health policy involve a number of steps. In addition, various institutions play active roles in the realization of the same. Congress, Supreme Court, President, State governments, Lobbyists, Political advocacy groups, and special interest groups are the major plays in this respect. They pursue every avenue available to them in order to ensure that the existing health policy suits the ordinary American. It means that dissenting voices help refine government policies, particularly in the health sector.

So far, each of the players has demonstrated an impeccable responsibility in their duties, especially the President and Congress.


Congress.Com. (2015). Legislative branch. Retrieved from

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2013). The Public's Health Care Agenda for the 113th Congress. Retrieved from (2015). Influence & Lobbying. Retrieved from

Supreme Court of the United States. (2015). Recent arguments. Retrieved from (2014). Health Insurance, Nutrition, and Food Safety. Retrieved from

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