"Peptic Ulcer and Its Treatment" is a perfect example of a paper on the gastrointestinal system. Development of Peptic Ulcer A Peptic ulcer can develop in several ways in human beings. According to Rivers (1937a), the most common way through which peptic cancer develops is because of imbalances in the nervous system (p. 172). In this regard, an imbalance in the nervous system causes localized painful and spontaneous contraction of muscles in the stomach. In effect, the result is less blood pumped in the localized area, which results in erosion of the mucus that lines up the stomach wall (Rivers, 1937a, p.
137). On the other hand, Von Bergmann suggested that continuous irritation of these muscles eventually led to the development of wounds along the stomach walls (as cited in Rivers, 1937a, p. 137). In effect, the results are an increase in acidity of gastric juice and the continuous contraction of muscles along the stomach involuntarily, which leads to a peptic ulcer. Bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) Chey and Wong (2007) identified “ a clear link between H. pylori infection and the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease” (p.
1809). In this case, studies indicate that a majority of people infected with this bacterium showed no symptoms, which only became evident following a triggering factor. In this case, studies indicate that constant erosion of the stomach lining activates the bacterium. On the other hand, the bacterium can live in an individual’ s body from childhood with the bacterium becoming active when the body ages and experiences incidents of stress (Chey & Wong, 2007, p. 1809). Factors That May Lead to an Ulcer As mentioned earlier, a peptic ulcer significantly develops due to imbalances in the nervous system.
In this regard, stress is one of the factors that may lead to ulcers since stress predisposes an individual to risks of imbalances in the nervous system. Also, another factor that can lead to an ulcer is the genetic component of an individual that may influence the individual to produce more acid in their stomach, which causes the erosion of the gastroduodenal walls (Rivers, 1937a, p. 138). Furthermore, there are other obvious factors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, and medication, which causes imbalances and consequently triggers the development of an ulcer. Development of Perforation Rivers (1937b) noted perforation developed with a “ sudden rupture of an ulcer, producing a hole in the wall of the stomach or duodenum” (p.
138). In this case, the patient suffering from the ulcer experienced a lot of pain because of the rapture that produced a hole on the wall of the stomach. This is the reason the 50-year old man experienced abdominal pain and was vomiting. Also, Rivers (1937b) noted this stage of the ulcer made a patient experience a drop in the blood pressure, which was one of the symptoms the man experienced (p.
138). Peritonitis In the process of developing a perforation, the rupturing of an ulcer, which produces a hole in the wall of a stomach, has catastrophic effects. In this regard, Rivers (1937b) noted, the hole allowed, “ Gastroduodenal contents to spill unimpeded into the peritoneal cavity” (p. 138). Consequently, this results in inflammation of the peritoneal cavity, which is peritonitis and causes “ acute lancinating pain felt throughout the abdomen” (Rivers, 1937b, p.
138). In effect, the patient had peritonitis since the surgeons found that he had a perforated peptic ulcer and experienced severe abdominal pains, which are a result of the inflamed peritoneal cavity.
Chey, W. D., & Wong, B. C. Y. (2007). American College of Gastroenterology Guideline on the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection. American Journal of Gastroenterology 102, 1808–1825.
Rivers, A. B. Peptic Ulcer. (1937a). The American Journal of Nursing, 37(7), 711-718. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3413345
Rivers, A. B. Peptic Ulcer. (1937b). The American Journal of Nursing, 37(8), 831-843. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3413203