Measuring the Energy Level among Elders – Food&Nutrition Example

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"Measuring the Energy Level among Elders" is a controversial example of a paper on food and nutrition. Geriatrics involves taking care of old people with trained health care workers. The objective of this paper is to assess the nutritional requirements of the aged.   Biochemical Indices The nutritional intake among old people is low because of increased dormancy, and low exercises. To measure the functional biochemical indicators, it is important to consider nutritional health indicators such as albumin, pre-albumin, haemoglobin, ferritin, lymphocytes and C-reactive proteins (Nixon and Yuan, 2011). The approximated range of biochemical indicators among the aged is haemoglobin (8.6mmol/L), Albumin (46g/L) and pre-albumin (0.25 g/L).

Haemoglobin is an essential requirement in an individual’ s body since it functions as a transporting agent of gases in the bloodstreams (Williams, 2010). It has a binding capacity of oxygen of 1.34 ml per gram of haemoglobin, and this ensures an increase in the blood oxygen capacity, while albumin functions as a regulator of colloidal osmotic pressure (Nixon and Yuan, 2011). Energy requirementsEstimation Scientists believe that the aged male has a higher energy expenditure in comparison to the aged female. Glucose is an important energy supplement among the old people, and to acquire it, they need to take food rich in carbohydrates, and this has an effect of raising the blood glucose level of the elderly (Nixon and Yuan, 2011).

  They can also get energy from fruit elements like oranges and apples, which contain an approximate value of 3 to 4 ounces of carbohydrates enough to produce a daily dosage of 10 to 20 gms of glucose. Measurement To measure the energy levels among the old, scientists mostly use indirect calorimetric and basal metabolic rate is an example of this method.

They weigh the percentage of nutritional intake by determining the level albumin intake among the elderly, and any negative change of albumin level is an indicator of inflammation. This is because of a decrease of glycoproteins, C reactive, Alpha 1 acids and acute phase proteins (Nixon and Yuan, 2011). B) Protein requirements: The aged people have a lower protein concentration than the young, and an indicator of this is the decline of their skeletal muscles and because of low protein concentrations, their skin elasticity is low.

An individual needs 0.8g/kg of proteins in relation to the person’ s body weight. This amounts to 30% of the individual’ s body tissue, and as age goes by, the percentage reduces to an approximate value of 20% of the body tissues. Animal products are the main sources of protein, and other nutritional values such as folic acids, vitamin B 12 and iron. C) Carbohydrate requirements: The old have a high concentration of lean muscles and body fats, and therefore, they require a lower percentage of calories in their body system.

Their diet intake must consist of 60% of calories, and this produces an approximate value of 6720 kilojoules of carbohydrates. Fat Requirements: A higher percentage of fat intake among the chances of the elderly increase of getting chronic diseases. Triglycerides are an example of a fat substance, which if not checked, can lead to an emergence of a heart ailment. Cholesterol is another example of a dangerous fat element. Water Requirements: Water helps in the absorption and digestion of food elements, and it helps in reducing the health risks associated by a higher percentage of blood urea nitrogen concentration (bun) A higher percentage of bun indicates the malfunctioning status of a kidney.

  To correct this, it is essential for the elderly to take at least 5 glasses of water per day. Vitamin and Mineral Requirements Diseases such as Alzheimer arise due to lack of vitamins, and specifically vitamin E. This makes vitamin intake an essential nutrient for the old (Watson, 1994). Vitamin K is essential in wound healing. Vitamin C helps in proper skin maintenance, while vitamin B 12 prevents memory loss among the aged. Zinc is an essential mineral requirement, and it initiates a tasty acuity among the aged, and the recommended level by nutritionists is 15mg per day. New Trends in providing nutritional therapy: A new trend in nutritional therapy is the back to basic therapy, and it emphasizes on taking whole food substances, as opposed to processed foods.

It strengthens the mind, body and spirit of the patient in relation to nutritional intake (Nixon and Yuan, 2011). This therapy lays down the accepted diets for specific nutrients, and it views food elements as healing elements. Consultation (how to implement nutritional intervention)A)Initial This stage involves synthesizing and collecting information that affects the nutritional status of the aged.

Information such as the nutritional deficiency of the aged is in consideration, and the manner he can make up for the deficient nutrients. It is this information that a nutritionist uses to develop a plan and procedures for preventing a decline in the nutritional status of the aged (Williams, 2010).   Quantitative data collection is the next procedure, and its aim is to develop a nutritional intervention mechanism (Frias, 2008).   This step is concerned with numbers, and an example of the questions it seeks to ask are, what is the level of proteins in a person’ s body? B) Follow up This process involves observing the progress of the patient in relation to nutritional consumption (Williams, 2010).

An example involves a situation where nurses monitor the eating habits of an elderly patient, and whether his diet satisfies the prescriptions of a therapist. Insurance coverageA) Medicare Medicare is an insurance policy that covers a patient’ s medical expenses and ensures he does not suffer loss in case the treatment is highly expensive (Frias, 2008).

  This policy is not highly effective because of the major differences arising between insurance paybacks and medical charges. B) Medicaid This policy targets medicare insurance holder and it supplements the policy by paying for long term treatment and drugs. C) Other Insurance PoliciesLife Insurance Cover The aged have access to the life insurance policy and because of their vulnerability to death, the premiums they pay is high. A short time life cover that does not amount to huge financial benefits is the guaranteed life cover. This form of policy gives limited benefit to the beneficiaries of the policy, in case of the death of the policyholder. Other Means of Nutritional Assessments: Anthropometric Assessment Scientist uses scientific methods in weighing the nutritional component of an aged person’ s body mechanism.

  This assessment involves the use of bioelectric impedance, and x-ray technologies in making a diagnosis (Mezey, 2001). Functional Assessment This method measures the quality of an individual’ s life by observing the pattern and quality of an individual nutritional intake (Mezey, 2001).  

References

Frias, D. (2008). The Aged Microenvironment Influences Prostate Carcinogenesis. Ft. Belvoir:

Defense Technical Information Center.

Mezey, M. D. (2001). The encyclopedia of elder care: the comprehensive resource on geriatric

and social care. New York: Springer Pub..

Nixon, R. A., & Yuan, A. (2011). Cytoskeleton of the nervous system. New York: Springer.

Watson, R. R. (1994). Handbook of nutrition in the aged (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Williams, M. H. (2010). Nutrition for health, fitness & sport (9th ed.). Boston, Mass.: McGraw-

Hill.

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