Health Epidemiology and Statistics – Epidemiology Example

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"Health Epidemiology and Statistics" is a wonderful example of a paper on epidemiology. There are different terms in epidemiology that are used to denote certain meanings. Some of them are concerned with the same parameters but are used differently. Some of these are odds ratios, incidence, and risk. They are different in the sense that the odds ratio means the probability that an event will occur in comparison to that of its non-occurrence. It creates the association of risk factors to disease and compares the disease likelihood in different situations.

In contrast, the risk is used to mean the ratio of the chances of disease among individuals who are exposed to the risk factor in comparison to those who are not exposed. On the other hand, incidence means that the number of new cases that are experienced within a particular time hence referring to the number of people at risk. Similarly, sensitivity and specificity are also different because sensitivity measures the proportion of the actual positives while specificity measures that of real negatives that are correctly identified. Therefore, sensitivity helps to rule out disease while specificity helps to confirm the existence of the disease (Rothman, Greenland & Lash, 2008).

Therefore, as an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) nurse, it is vital to know the difference so that the correct measures in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment can be given based on the presenting circumstances. Various study designs exist in epidemiology. For example, there are experimental and non-experimental study designs in the practice of APN. The APN can apply experimental study designs to observe, document, and describe elements of a naturally occulting condition. It helps to make a hypothesis or develop a certain theory.

Therefore, they can get more information within particular characteristics as they occur naturally. It is helpful since it eliminates bias by using large sample sizes and the provision of operational definitions for variables. It is also easy to determine cost over effect. However, it presents a disadvantage whereby at times, it is difficult to conduct the experiments due to ethical reasons. On the other hand, nonexperimental study designs are important in conducting studies where the independent variable cannot be maintained, where it is unethical to manipulate the independent variable, and where it is not possible to perform experiments.

It is beneficial in the sense that it requires less effort since shallow research is conducted hence minimal chances of disrupting the research. One of the disadvantages of the non-experimental design is that it cannot find the cause and effect relationships, which is a great requirement in disease studies. Epidemiological research and evidence-based practice can help the APN to improve the results of health outcomes by finding the exact causes of certain disease conditions.

The effect of a number of situations on healthcare can also be identified. Thus, the cause and effect conditions of various diseases are useful in the diagnosis of various conditions. As an Advanced Practice Nurse, I envision that the application of these concepts will include the care provided to individuals and populations in the sense that the different ways to prevent some conditions can be developed. In addition, appropriate treatment approaches depending on the level and degree of harm can be established. Both treatment and preventive measures can be communicated to the individuals.


Healthy people. (2014). Health-Related Quality of Life & Well-Being. Retrieved 27 October 2014 from quality-of-life-well-being

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing Research: Generating Evidence for Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Klower/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rothman, J.K., Greenland, S., & Lash, L. T. (2008). Modern epidemiology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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