"All about the Endocrine System" is a great example of a paper on the endocrine system. 1) What are the causes and treatments for Types 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus? (6 points total – 2 points each for the cause of type I and type II, 1 point each for treatment of type I and type II) Type 1Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can be caused by factors such as diet, chemical, drugs ingested, environment, viruses that destroy the insulin generating cells and genetics. Insulin is the key drug used in the treatment of Type 1 DM. DM type II is caused by genetic and lifestyle factors such as obesity, diet, gender, and age. DM type II is treated by modifying the patients’ diet as well as exercising regularly. 2) A patient has fasting blood glucose performed and is told that the result is borderline.
What are the indications for diabetes? What is the next step? (2 points total – 1 point for an indication for diabetes, 1 point for next step) A person with boarder line diabetes records higher than normal blood sugar levels. However, even though the sugar level could be high, there exist no grounds to indicate the existence of full-blown diabetes. In case the initial fasting blood sugar test is done and shows borderline DM, then the next step is to repeat the test. 3) The above patient also has a hemoglobin A1C test performed.
What is the reason for this test? Is there a benefit to this test vs. fasting blood glucose? (2 points total – 1 point for reason for the test, 1 point for the benefit to this test versus fasting blood glucose) According to Marieb and Hoehn (2010), hemoglobin picks up glucose, which accumulates for three months. So, a measure of A1C can result in the establishment of the average blood sugar. Though fasting blood sugar is a test carried out to establish if a person is suffering from diabetes, hemoglobin A1C test, which has the capability of checking the sugar levels in key organs such as kidneys helps avoid complications of diabetes.
More importantly, maintaining hemoglobin A1C helps in the prevention of progression and other many diabetic complications. 4) Prednisone is a common steroid used to treat a variety of conditions. What are some of the common side effects and risks? In particular, what effect does prednisone have on blood glucose and adrenal function? (4 points total – 1 point for side effects, 1 point for risks, 1 point for effect on blood glucose, 1 point for effect on adrenal function) Common side effects and risks The most prevalent side effects when prednisone is used include weight gain and increased appetite, immunosuppressive effect, hyperactivity with a sleeping disorder, unstable moods with increased irritability, body fluid retention, Acne, interruption in glucose tolerance, and high blood pressure among others. Effect of prednisone on blood glucose and adrenal function Chronic use of prednisone could result in the development of steroid-induced diabetes whereby the drug inhibits the production of insulin leading to higher glucose levels in the blood (Marieb & Hoehn, 2010). When prednisone is taken for a prolonged duration of time, the body loses the ability to generate organic corticosteroids, which eventually results in prednisone dependency. 5) You receive a call from a newly diagnosed diabetic patient who is struggling with his insulin.
He reports that he gave himself too much insulin. What advice do you give? (4 points total – 2 points for correct advice given, 2 points for the reasoning behind the advice) Administering an overdose of insulin lowers the glucose levels in the blood, a condition known as hypoglycemia, which is characterized by heart palpitations, seizures, excessive sweating, and uncontrollable anxiety and hunger. The insulin, either produced in the body or administered artificially, helps control the glucose levels in the blood. Therefore, excessive administration of insulin means that the glucose levels will be excessively reduced. As a result of such a potential problem, I would advise the patient to consume beverages and food rich in sugar.
For a case where the patient’ s condition may not allow him to take oral sugar, the administration of glucagon injection can also help the body regain its blood sugar levels.
ReferencesMarieb, E. & Hoehn, K. (2010). Human Anatomy & Physiology (8th edn.). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.