Treating the Bacterial Disease – Drug Therapy Example

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"Treating the Bacterial Disease" is a good example of a paper on drug therapy. Treatment of bacterial diseases requires specific medication that targets the pathogen to avoid the development of resistance. Therefore, the diagnosis of enteric and other pathogens  requires  a precise identification process that narrows down to the characteristics distinguishing one pathogen from the rest. The study aimed to identify pathogens using a series of simple biochemical tests like catalyze, oxidases, and the grams staining technique as well as the morphological characteristics of the colony to identify the mysterious bacterial pathogens.

These strategies were used alongside the cellular arrangement. Besides, the experiment studied resistance patterns of the pathogens against common antibiotics. The study found that all the bacterial pathogens were found to be susceptible to chloramphenicol. However, only  staphylococcus aureus  was found resistant to streptomycin, the rest were susceptible. For the  ampicillin  resistance, only,   Pseudomonas fluorescens  was resistance. Testing the resistance for penicillin depicted that booth Escherichia coli and  Pseudomonas fluorescens  were resistant to penicillin.   Pseudomonas fluorescens  were distinguished from other  rod-shaped  single cells arrangement by the positive oxidase test. The  rod-shaped  single cell arrangement that produced gas for glucose, fructose, and lactose fermentation was identified as that Escherichia  coli.

These findings  show  that pathogens exhibit different morphological  biochemical tests. A combination of these tests helps in the specific identification of the pathogens.   1.0  Introduction  The recent development of  resistance by the enteric and environmental pathogens is a dangerous phenomenon because scientists would not be in a position of using most of the current broad spectrum in the treatment of pathogens  (Hariharan  et al. , 2015). The main problem occurs when there are several bacterial pathogens in a  particular infection. Such scenarios  make  it difficult to target a specific pathogen because one remedy may not be effective for all the bacterial pathogens since some of the  bacterial  have developed  resistance  to the antibiotics  (Fischbach  and  Walsh,   2009).

However, the most important strategy  for  combating the increasing  cases  of bacterial infection is the  appropriate  identification  regimes. Effective identification requires the use of specific  strategies  like the use of a polymerase chain reaction. Using the PCR helps in the identification of the  genome  of the pathogen  hence  increasing  the likelihood of specific identification  (Piddock,   2014;  Silver,   2011). However, not all  laboratory  settings  and  health  facilities can afford the procedure. Therefore, the best alternative is the combination of simple yet effective strategies that identify  pathogens based on specific characteristics. The identification of pathogens is important before doing the antibiotic  resistance  tests that would help identify the most appropriate treatment regime for use in case of coming up with appropriate treatment methods to avoid the development of resistance to  the  antibiotic  (Piddock,   2014;  Silver,   2011).

The experiment aimed to identify pathogens based on their morphology, biochemical characteristics, and cellular arrangement before studying their resistance to specific  antibodies.   Materials and methods 2.1 Chemicals and reagents  Four antibiotics namely penicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and  ampicillin  were selected for testing antibiotic resistance. The nutrient agar and agar disk were used for antibiotic resistance study. Gram stain reagent and staining rack were used for the preparation of the studies of cell morphology. The microscope was used for observing the stained slides that were covered with coverslips    2.1 Disk diffusion assay  The disk diffusion was used for antibiotic resistance studies.

The agar was prepared and plated with specific bacteria. A disk was made in the agar and antibiotic poured. The experiment was incubated and checked after 18hrs. The diameter with no growth referred to as the inhibition zone was determined using the diameter measurement. Measurement of the diameter less than 10mm was reported as resistance development while diameters greater than or equals to 10mm signified susceptibility  2.2  Biochemical  and morphological  tests    Tests like oxidase, catalase test, fermentation of sugar, lactose, and  fructose were  performed to assess the biochemical characteristics of the pathogens.

A colony of specific bacteria colony was used to test the specific test as previously described (Silver,   2011).   Results 3.1 Antibiotic resistance  All the bacteria pathogens were found to be susceptible to chloramphenicol. However, only  staphylococcus  aureus was found resistant  to streptomycin, the rest were susceptible. For the  ampicillin  resistance, only,   Pseudomonas fluorescens  was resistance. Testing the resistance for penicillin depicted that booth Escherichia coli and  Pseudomonas fluorescens  were resistant to penicillin.   3.2 Morphology and biochemical    Pseudomonas fluorescens  were distinguished from other  rod-shaped  single cells arrangement by the positive oxidase test.

The  rod-shaped  single cell arrangement that produced gas for glucose, fructose, and lactose fermentation was identified as  that Escherichia  coli. The other  rod-shaped  pairs  or short chains of cell arrangement that was positive for grams stain was identified as Bacillus megaterium. The other positive grams reaction for the cocci  irregular clusters of cell arrangement was identified as Staphylococcus aureus because  it  fermented glucose,   fructose,   and lactose. The unknown culture was rod-shaped single-cell arranges grams negative, with  positive  catalyze,   glucose, fructose, and lactose fermentation. The other  rod-shaped  pairs or short chains of cell arrangement that was positive for grams stain was identified as Bacillus megaterium.

The other positive grams reaction for the cocci irregular clusters of cell arrangement was  identified as Staphylococcus aureus because  it  fermented glucose,   fructose,   and lactose. The unknown culture was rod-shaped single-cell arranges grams negative, with  positive  catalyze,   glucose, fructose, and lactose fermentation.   Discussions    All the  bacterial  pathogens were found to be susceptible to  chloramphenicol, which suggested the need to use this antibiotic as the broad-spectrum choice for the treatment of all the pathogens. However, only  staphylococcus  aureus was found resistant  to streptomycin, which suggested the need to avoid using this antibiotic against the bacteria owing to the potential of resistance development.   For the  ampicillin  resistance, only,   Pseudomonas fluorescens  was resistance  suggesting that ampicillin is a better alternative for all the pathogens  except for  this pathogen.

Testing the resistance for penicillin  depicted that both Escherichia coli and  Pseudomonas fluorescens  were resistant to penicillin.   One strategy is the use of grams staining to group the pathogens in two broad categories of positive or negative (Fischbach  and  Walsh,   2009). The staining also helps in the identification of their cellular characteristics like shape and cell arrangement. Other strategies involve the use of biochemical tests that studies characteristic of the pathogens to procedures like oxidase, catalase, and fermentation of carbon molecules.   Sugar fermentation is different between the organisms because these pathogens have different capacities of using glucose as a source of energy.   E.  Coli  ferment glucose to produce gas as opposed to other species.

References

Fischbach, M.A & Walsh, C.T. (2009). Antibiotics for Emerging Pathogens, Science, 325(5944): 1089-1093

Hariharan P, Bharani T, Franklyne JS, Biswas P, Solanki SS, Paul-Satyaseela M (2015). Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenter Gram-negative clinical isolates of microbial resource orchid. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 6(1):198- 201.

Lewis, K. (2013). Platforms for antibiotic discovery, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 12(May): 371-387

Piddock, L.J.V. (2014). Understanding the basis of antibiotic resistance: a platform for drug discovery, Microbiology. 160(Pt11): 2366-2373

Silver, L.L (2011). Challenges of Antibacterial Discovery, Clinical Microbiology Review, 24(1): 71-109

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