"Theories and Models that Can Be Used to Protect the Young Population Health" is an exceptional example of a paper on child development. There is a range of theories and models that can be used to protect children and young population health. The primary objectives include the techniques of promoting health, preventing the occurrence of illness. The models also help healthcare practitioners to understand the behaviors of different people from diverse backgrounds. The models identified are The Health Belief Model, The Health Promotion Model, the health-illness continuum model, and the agent-host-environment model.
There are variations in their goals (Prochaska, 2013). The health belief model primarily focuses on individual’ s perception; knowledge about their relationship with their health. These are susceptibility, the seriousness of a condition, and the benefits of any health action. On the other hand, the health promotion model emphasizes the character of the individual and their knowledge about health. Besides, the health-illness continuum provides means to assess the person's level of health. The theory views public health as a fluid state, a high level of wellness, and others such as death. Agent-Host-Environment theory assesses the causes of a particular medical condition affecting an individual with the focus being the roles played by the environment (Prochaska, 2013). These four models explained have their similarities and contrasts about health concerns.
The striking similarity is that they are concerned with an individual’ s health in general as opposed to community or group health. However, they have differences in how they approach treatment and prevention. One looks for an individual’ s perception, knowledge, environment as an agent, and other-regarding wellness and number of deaths. Therefore, they are important in various ways of preventing the health of children and that of young people (Prochaska, 2013). By understanding how environmental and other factors combine the increase the risk of illness among young people and children, a solution can be crafted.
For instance, the factors can be balanced and thus help maintain the health status of the target population. When there is an imbalance, the disease is likely to occur (Prochaska, 2013). The models can assist in assessing the relationship between perceived health status, self-esteem, and other factors that can be used to predict health status concerning their habit (Prochaska, 2013).
On the other hand, the theory can help in illustrates how the health of a person keeps on changing and how the body automatically adapts to these variations in the environment. This is important in controlling the health of children and the young population (Prochaska, 2013). Finally, the theory explains how one's behavior can lead to particular illnesses, knowledge about the seriousness of a medical condition, and others such as actions, which should be taken to realize the needed benefits. By understanding these theories, one can understand the effectiveness of these factors in controlling and treating the illness.
Modifying factors include demographic factors and others (Prochaska, 2013). According to attachment theory, Child abuse and neglect by parents are linked to issues of maternal deprivation due to an emphasis on the job rather than the child. As such, there are implications about child neglect and abuse. This is because the separation of the mother from the child causes social and psychological neglect by the parent. This affects the bonding between the two and the lack of psychological and physical security and protection from the mother.
Such issues of poor attachment are the leading cause 0f neglect and child abuse (Crain, 2015). Learning theory, on the other hand, stipulates that child behavior is determined by interaction with the environment. Therefore, according to the model, the issues of child abuse and neglect are caused by dysfunctional childcare practices by parents (Crain, 2015). On the other hand, the cognitive approach is essential in explaining the issues of child abuse and neglect. In this case, positive attachment leads to poor parenting skills, poor understanding of the child's development stages which leads to maltreatment and neglect.
For example, poor parenting makes the parent perceive the behavior as requiring intervention. The resulting intervention would lead to child abuse and ill-treatment (Williams, Sawyer & Wahlstrom, 2012). Williams, Sawyer & Wahlstrom, (2012) argues that child abuse and neglect is a vexing problem in society due to myriads of reasons. This is because it leaves scars, emotional torture, puts them in dangerous situations, and also makes them worthless. There are three ways in which the issues are a vexing problem in society.
It takes many shapes such as failing to provide for basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, and others. On the other hand, it may include sexual abuse, physical abuse leading to hurting and others. According to Crain (2015), child neglect and abuses cause a lack of trust and difficulties in forming a relationship with others in society. It becomes very hard to trust others because of neglect by parents and other close caregivers. This also makes it impossible to maintain relationships with others due to the immense fear of abuse and control by others. Hoare, Rose, & Parrett, (2012) adds that it makes them feel worthless because they make the core feeling becomes a reality.
In their adult age, they may not pursue education; look for a worthy job due to their sense of unworthiness. In addition, those who suffered sexual abuse develop shame and stigma and always struggle with the feeling of being damaged. Hoare, Rose, & Parrett, (2012) argues that neglected children have trouble regulating their emotions and express them safely. These result in unexpected and uncontrolled emotions, which lead to anxiety, anger, and depression.
Further, the victims may turn into alcoholism, drug abuse, and painful feelings. According to Holmes, (2014), there are fundamental points of attachment theory about child protection practices at the family level. First, children are born with the need to attach to a central figure, which includes their mother. Secondly, a child in the first two years requires continuous attachment from the figure. Thirdly, long-term maternal deprivation leads to various consequences such as aggression, psychopathy, and delinquency amongst others. Short-term deprivation leads to distress.
The four ideas can be applied in child-rearing practices. The nature of mother attachment to the child is essential in establishing a bond with the figure. Failure to start or breakdown in the process causes serious adverse effects such as psychopathy. Also, continual disruption results in long-term social, cognitive, and emotional problems for the infant. Implications are vast. Thus, primary caregivers should provide care for children for a particular period. Some of the behaviors such as affectionless psychopaths and robbers are caused by an extended period of deprivation by the caregivers before they attained five years.
Also, it severely impacts its social, intellectual capacity, and emotional development of the children (Holmes, 2014). The Public Health Framework is essential in child protection at the family level since it is concerned with their health and desired outcomes. It also highlights the indicators to understand the issues of improving and protecting public health. The focus is on the two high-level results in the public health system. The outcomes of the framework are concerned with the way people live, the quality of life in all the stages of their life (Humphreys, Wakerman & Taylor, 2012).
In the case study, the focus is the life lived by Iris and Dante family mainly the children. The discussion explores the need for primary, secondary, and tertiary protection intervention. Ina is a young child who requires attention from the caregivers, but the economic situation affects the relationship although not much. There is an aspect of neglect from the parent, which requires protection intervention at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. The reasons for such are to create awareness of the indicators of maltreatment to the children, and this helps in stopping the cases before they occur.
It also focuses on the problems of child abuse and therefore the family needs this to prevent the situation to their children and their responsibilities in parenting (Humphreys, Wakerman & Taylor, 2012). Besides, it is for families with young children to understand diverse issues such as poverty and its implication on child maltreatment. Thus, Dante and the iris family will learn to deal with everyday work and family-related stresses, which may protect them from proving full parenting responsibilities.
It is also important to them because they live in low-income neighborhoods, and they need information regarding family resources. Finally, they require tertiary prevention to solve the issues of maltreatment it had occurred and further reduce the impacts. Other includes preventing future whether it has happened or not (Humphreys, Wakerman & Taylor, 2012).
Crain, W. (2015). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Psychology Press.
Hoare, J. A., Rose, M. R., & Parrett, N. (2012). A re-examination of female child molesters’ implicit theories: evidence of female specificity?. Psychology, Crime & Law, 18(2), 209-224.
Holmes, J. (2014). The search for the secure base: Attachment theory and psychotherapy. Routledge.
Humphreys, J. S., Wakerman, J., & Taylor, J. (2012). Understanding rural and remote health: a framework for analysis in Australia. Health & Place, 18(3), 496-503.
Prochaska, J. O. (2013). The transtheoretical model of behavior change. In Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (pp. 1997-2000). Springer New York.
Williams, B. K., Sawyer, S. C., & Wahlstrom, C. M. (2012). Marriages, families, and intimate relationships. Pearson Higher Ed.