Association between Breastfeeding and Intelligence – Child Development Example

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"Association between Breastfeeding and Intelligence" is an excellent example of a paper on child development. Although the researchers used a sample from urban areas the results were somehow valid taking into consideration the number of measures taken to avoid bias ness. The research is long time research there is no clear indication on follow-up despite the interview date at early ages and ’ 30s. This raises an eyebrow on what the participants could have been doing in-between more so at teenage which is prone to many exposures thus raising results validity.   Was the COHORT recruited in an acceptable way? The cohort recruitment was not fair for it only considered mothers and neonatal in urban areas thus neglecting the major population that lives in rural areas.

A good fraction of rural dwellers end up being successful in life and earn a good income despite the challenges they face at an early age on their feeding patterns. Is it worth continuing? The research is worth continuing but includes all players in the society, ranging from the poor, rich, rural, and urban dwellers. Was the exposure accurately measured to minimized bias? The rate of business was reduced at all costs in the exposure according to the research paper, they went further to involve independent observers who did not have knowledge of the participants to measure their IQ.

Was the outcome accurately measured to minimized bias? The outcome of the results was accurately measured since all the information was collected by trained personnel, this minimized rates of assumptions and wrong information. Have the authors identified all-important confounding factors? The author only dwelled on breastfeeding; the nutritional diet consumed by children after breastfeeding also affects children's growth rate and physic.

The educational attainment is relatively different in people and income level. The author does not indicate the education level of the participants and source of income whether employed or personal investment. Was the follow-up of the subjects complete enough? The follow-up of the research was not complete enough since it did not cover all ages of development. Children at different ages experience different factors that directly influence their later life, like drug abuse, exposure to a different environment, etc.   What are the results of the study? Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood.


Cesar G V, Bernardo L, Christian L, Luciana Q, Ricardo T, Denise P, Gonçalves H and Fernando C. 2015. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. Lancet Glob Health 3: e199–205
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