Interventions for Preventing Falls in Elderly People – Care Example

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"Interventions for Preventing Falls in Elderly People" is a well-written example of a paper on care. Critically, the prevention of falls among the elderly cannot be achieved through a single proposed method. It is multivariate dependent on other confounding factors. The proposed solution is a package that consists of patient and family education, early identification of risk factors, a multidisciplinary approach, and adequate staffing in preventing patient falls. In lieu of this, this paper will analyze and conduct an appraisal of articles, research-based studies, and interventions in the reduction of patient fall among the elderly in support of the proposed solution. In an article published in the American Family Physician journal, the author, observe that patient falls are considered one of the geriatric problems that threaten the independence of the elderly.

Statistically, in patients aged 65 years and above, 30-40% experience falls every year (Rao, 2013). However, the article does not provide an incidence, morbidity, and mortality rate in the general population. The article supports the proposed solution as the author concurs that the management of falls is multifactorial. In an article published in the Cochrane Database Systematic Review, the authors observe that patient falls is high in health care institutions and long-term care facilities.

It gives a statistical approximation of 30% falls in patients aged 65 years and above especially in health care institutions. However, the article does not provide data on the incidence, morbidity, and mortality rate in the general population. The article supports the proposed solution as it opines that careful modeling of the interventions is necessary for the context of the local health care system  (Gillespie, Gillespie, Robertson, Lamb, Cumming, & Rowe, 2011). Moyan and Binder (2014), in an article published in the American Journal of Medicine, posits that falls are common among the elderly, and appropriate screening should be done during routine health maintenance examination.

The article does not provide statistical data on the gravity of falls nor does it provide data on the incidence, morbidity, and mortality rate in the general population. However, the article concurs that early assessment of risk factors is key in the prevention of falls among the elderly  (Moylan & Binder, 2014). Close, Ellis, Hooper, Glucksman, Jackson, and Swift (2013), in an article published in The Lancet, observes that falls among the elderly is s common presentation at the accident and emergency units of hospitals.

The article does not provide statistical information to demonstrate the gravity of the problem; neither does it provide mortality, morbidity ad incidence rates. However, it opines that the management of falls among the elderly is an interdisciplinary approach (Close, Ellis, Hooper, Glucksman, Jackson, & Swift, 2013). An article authored by Wu, Li, Hu, and Liao  (2012) and published in the US National Library of MedicineNational Institutes of Health observes that indeed falls among the elderly are of grave concern and effective strategies should be put in place to reduce the incidence.

However, the article fails to provide statistical information on the incidence, mortality, and morbidity rates in the general population. The authors agree that risk assessment in conjunction with targeted intervention is key in reducing the incidence of patient falls in the elderly  (Wu, Li, Hu, & Liao, 2012) The article by Peeters, Vries, Elders, Pluijm, Bouter, and Lips (2011), on the prevention of falls in elderly patients at a high risk of falling, observe that falls in the elderly would lead to serious complications such as fractures.

Statistically, 30% of elderly patients aged 65 years and above fall at least once while 15% fall at least twice. In the general population, 5% of falls result in fractures while 5 % result in other serious injuries. The article supports the solution that multidisciplinary assessment of risk factors would reduce the incidence of falls in elderly patients  (Peeters, Vries, Elders, Pluijm, Bouter, & Lips, 2011) In an article published in the BioMed Central Geriatrics journal, Stenhagen, Ekströ m, Nordell, and Elmstå h (2013), observe that accidental falls among the elderly present significant health challenges warranting extensive research on risks and prevention strategies.

The article does not provide statistical data on falls among the elderly; neither does it provide statistical information on the morbidity, incidence, and mortality rates. However, it concurs that risk assessment is key in developing interventions to reduce patient falls among the elderly  (Stenhagen, Ekströ m, Nordell, & Elmstå h, 2013) In a study published in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, the authors observe that patient falls are a common thing in health care facilities and institutions of long-term care.

Statistically, 12 % of the falls are attributed to neurological conditions. However, the study does not provide rates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality in the general population. Nevertheless, it agrees that a comprehensive approach of risk assessment, follow up, and patient education would reduce the incidence of patient falls  (Tack, Ulrich, & Kehr, 2012) Johnson, George, and Tran (2011), in a study published in the International Journal of Nursing Practice, notes that patient falls were high during the transfer of patients as well as mobilization.

No statistical information regarding the rates of incidence, mortality, and morbidity rates are provided. Similarly, there is no information on data reflecting the general population. Nevertheless, the authors concur that patient and family education in addition to the use of alarm devices would prevent patient falls  (Johnson, George, & Tran, 2011). Meade, Bursell, and Ketelsen (2011), in an article featured in the Journal of American Journal of Nursing, observe that patient safety is measured by the rate of falls in elderly patients.

  The article does not provide statistical data demonstrating the gravity of the problem; neither does it provide rates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality. Nonetheless, routine nurses’ rounds, operation changes in hospitals are effective in the prevention of falls  (Meade, Bursell, & Ketelsen, 2011). Whedon and Shedd (2010), in an article featured in the Journal of Nursing Scholarship, observes that falls are a significant contributor to injuries in hospitalized patients. However, the article does not provide statistical information on the gravity of the problem; neither does it provide statistics on the morbidity, mortality, and incidence rates of patient falls.

Nevertheless, the authors concur that comprehensive high-risk profiles should be developed in the assessment of patients at risk  (Whedon & Shedd, 2010). Miake-Lye, Hempel, Ganz, and Shekelle (2013), in a study featured in the Annals of Internal Medicine observe that patient falls are common occurrences among inpatients. They note that multi-component programs reduce the relative risk of falls by a figure of 30%. However, they do not give statistical data on the incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates in the general population.

The study supports the proposed change by noting that staff training and education, as well as a multidisciplinary approach, would reduce the incidence of patient falls (Miake-Lye, Hempel, Ganz, & Shekelle, 2013). Wilson (2011), observes that falls are the most common hospital-related injuries yet they are the most preventable causes of mortality and morbidity. He notes that falls would result in increased dependence, high chances of being admitted to a facility of long-term care, physical and emotional effects. The article does not provide statistical data on the incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates. Nonetheless, it concurs that nurse’ s education of risk factors, fall index statistics, and prevention strategies would reduce the incidence of falls  (Wilson, 2011). Haines, et al.

(2013) observes that patient falls impact negatively on the recovery process of inpatients, especially the elderly. The article does not provide statistical evidence on the gravity of the problem as well as rates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality rates. However, it supports the proposed change by suggesting the identification of cost-effective methods that would give an economic valuation  (Haines, et al. , 2013). Tricco, et al. (2013), notes that falls are the leading causes of increased mortality and morbidity among older inpatients.

Prevention strategies are variant and a clear prevention program has not been clearly identified. It is still obscure. The article does not provide statistical information on patients' falls on the incidence, morbidity, and mortality in the general population. However, it concurs that a meta-analysis and systematic review of interventions would identify the most effective fall prevention strategy  (Tricco, et al. , 2013).  

References

Close, J., Ellis, M., Hooper, R., Glucksman, E., Jackson, S., & Swift, C. (2013). Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 353(9147), 93-7.

Gillespie, L., Gillespie, W., Robertson, M., Lamb, S., Cumming, R., & Rowe, B. (2011). Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD000340.

Haines, T., Hill, A., Hill, K., Brauer, S., Hoffmann, T., Etherton-Beer, C., et al. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of patient education for the prevention of falls in hospital: economic evaluation from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Medicine, 11, 135. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-135.

Johnson, M., George, A., & Tran, D. (2011). Analysis of falls incidents: Nurse and patient preventive behaviors. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 17(1), 60-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-172X.2010.01907.x.

Meade, C., Bursell, A., & Ketelsen, L. (2011). Effects of nursing rounds: on patients' call light use, satisfaction, and safety. The American Journal of Nursing, 106(9), 58-70.

Miake-Lye, I., Hempel, S., Ganz, D., & Shekelle, P. (2013 ). Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(2), 390-6. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-5-201303051-00005.

Miake-Lye, I., Hempel, S., Ganz, D., & Shekelle, P. (2013). Inpatient fall prevention programs as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(2), 390-6. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-5-201303051-00005.

Moylan, K., & Binder, E. (2014). Falls in older adults: risk assessment, management, and prevention. The American Journal of Medicine, 120(6), 493.

Peeters, G., Vries, O., Elders, P., Pluijm, S., Bouter, L., & Lips, P. (2011). Prevention of fall incidents in patients with a high risk of falling: design of a randomized controlled trial with an economic evaluation of the effect of multidisciplinary transmural care. BMC Geriatrics, 2(7),15.

Rao, S. (2013). Prevention of falls in older patients. American Family Physician, 72(1), 81-8.

Stenhagen, M., Ekström, H., Nordell, E., & Elmståh, S. (2013). Falls in the general elderly population: a 3- and 6- year prospective study of risk factors using data from the longitudinal population study 'Good aging in Skane'. BMC Geriatrics, 13, 81. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-81.

Tack, K., Ulrich, B., & Kehr, C. (2012). Patient falls: profile for prevention. The Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 19(2), 83-9.

Tricco, A., Cogo, E., Holroyd-Leduc, J., Sibley, K., Feldman, F., Kerr, G., et al. (2013). Hi, I have completed the order. The order is a total of five pages. Kindly inform the customer about the additional two pages so he/ she would get the completed assignment. Thank you. Systematic Reviews, 6(2), 38. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-2-38.

Whedon, M., & Shedd, P. (2010). Prediction and prevention of patient fall. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 21(2), 108-14.

Wilson, E. (2011). Preventing patient falls. AACN Clinical Issues, 9(1), 100-8.

Wu, L., Li, Y., Hu, X., & Liao, Z. (2012). Prevention of falls of hospitalized elderly patients using a clinical pathway. Journal of Sichuan University, 43(2), 222-5.

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