Pathophysiology-Urinary Disorders – Cardiovascular System Example

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"Pathophysiology-Urinary Disorders" is a special example of a paper on the cardiovascular system.   Hypertension is the state where one suffers from high blood pressure, a good candidate for hypertension is one with blood pressure that higher than 140/90. There are many causes for hypertension; they include improper diet where the victim increases the consumption of high-cholesterol and fatty foods. This paper discusses the effects of hypertension and its symptoms.                       A patient has swollen legs, has gained weight over recently has frequent headaches has lost his appetite and feels tired. The sign of an increase in urine and creatinine levels in his body indicates the signs that the disease is affecting the kidneys (Weir, 2005). Nephrosclerosis is a condition characterized by the thickening and hardening of the blood vessels, in the kidneys.

This is likely to lead to kidney failure; this condition is normally more common in adults of more than 60 years of age. It occurs frequently in people who are affected by glomerulonephritis and hypertension. This then leads to an increase in blood pressure. Mr. Smith may not have the disease since the symptoms have been described as swollen.

The skin should be hard and thick for him to have the disease (Cheriyan et al, 2009). Mr. Smith is gaining weight since his body system is unable to remove excess fat that is lying in his body. Hypertensive people require regular exercise to maintain a healthy body. Doctors have advised their hypertensive patients to do exercise regularly science not only does it help in maintaining body weight but also helps in reducing the pressure that is in the blood vessels by helping the blood flow without hindrance (Cheriyan et al, 2009).

Edema is a disease, which is characterized by swollen skin, shiny and stretched skin. The skin is also dehydrated, and there is an increase in abdominal size. Smith is suffering from edema, swollen feet, and an increase in weight, which is due to the increase in his abdominal size (Canlas, 2000). This condition may arise due to pregnancy, and it is associated with cirrhosis of the liver, heart failure, and kidney disease. However, this condition calls for a separate treatment of hypertension the two have to be treated separately.

Mr. Smith is voiding dilute urine since his kidney has been affected by hypertension and has started to fail. This, therefore, is an indication that the disease has been worsening for the last several years since he was affected (Canlas, 2000). Metabolic acidosis, a condition that comes about when the body is producing a lot of acids, and when the kidneys cannot expel enough acid from the body, resulting in the production of dilute urine. The condition comes about when the body lacks enough sodium bicarbonate.

Anemia is a strong symptom of this condition, and that is why Mr. Smith is suffering from the disease since he already has the condition of metabolic acidosis (Canlas, 2000). After the diagnosis, by a qualified physician, the patient is put under medication, which entails the reduction of blood pressure. The doctor, by keeping the levels of the blood pressure low, can prevent secondary complications that arise because of Nephrosclerosis. This includes the prevention of other complications such as organ damage and kidney failure.


Canlas L. P. (2000). Hypertension, the silent killer: the new millennium's health improvement guide. Haverford: Goodlife Pub.

Cheriyan J, McEniery C, Wilkinson I. ( 2009.). Hypertension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Weir M. R. (2005). Hypertension. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.

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