Coronary Heart Disease – Cardiovascular System Example

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"Coronary Heart Disease" is a wonderful example of a paper on the cardiovascular system. Dyspnoea is classified as a sign of serious disease of either airway, heart, or lungs i. e. this is all about having difficulty when breathing or shortness of breath Oedema is a term that is used to refer to the fluid retention in the body of a human being i. e. the fluid buildup has been seen causing the tissue affected to swell, thus swelling usually occurs on the part that is injured. Congestive Cardiac Failure (CHF) is the condition that results from the inadequacy of oxygen in the blood that is supplied i. e.

heart as the central part of the body is unable to deliver blood rich of the Oxygen all over the body. This condition can be caused by; the diseases weakening the heart muscle, or either stiffening of the muscles surrounding the heart or lastly, a disease that raises the level of the Oxygen demand in the body, thus exceeding the ability of the heart to deliver the optimum amount of blood rich in Oxygen. These conditions usually affect various organs in the body, namely; lungs may become congested with fluid thus limiting the ability of a human being to exercise, blood accumulating in extremities thus resulting in swelling of the feet and/or ankles  (Hosenpud & Greenberg, 2007). Mitral valve stenosis is also known as mitral stenosis is a condition that is experienced when there is a narrowing of the heart’ s mitral, thus valve become abnormal i. e.

opening in an abnormal way or not opening properly, flowing of blood into the main pumping chamber of the heart i. e. left ventricle is blocked.

This situation makes one feel fatigued, and experiencing shortness of breath, in general, mitral valve stenosis is mainly caused by rheumatic fever  (Cheriyan & McEniery, 2010). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the diseases that affects the normal functioning of the heart i. e. there is the formation of a waxy substance along the coronary arteries called plaque, CHD usually affects the normal flowing of the blood. i.e. narrowing the coronary artery  (Tabbner & Hughson, 2013)  (Lippman & Sharma, 2007). Hypertension (High blood pressure) is a condition in which that force within the wall of artery walls is high during the flow of blood, thus causing health problems that are related to the heart.

This condition is usually determined by the amount your heart is able to pump in comparison with the resistance experienced during the flowing of the blood in the arteries.   (Brunton, 1990) Therefore the more the heart pumps the blood the narrower the arteries are thus resulting in high blood pressure. Diabetes Mellitus is normally called diabetes which is said to affect the body’ s ability to utilize the energy found in the food, there are three main types of diabetes, namely; type1 diabetes gestational diabetes, type2 diabetes. Venous ulcers are wounds that result from abnormal functioning of the venous valves especially related to legs i. e.

they mostly occur along the medial distal legs which are so painful. This type of venous ulcers affecting legs are called leg ulcers Cardiovascular System Anatomy and Physiology The heart is said to be the body pump that is responsible for ensuring that oxygenated blood is circulating all over the parts of the body via the vascular network of the body i. e.  (Anon. , 1997) it is a four-chambered pump, having the right side that is used in receiving the deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body and regenerating it to the lungs while on the left-side it is used to receive the blood-rich of oxygen from the lungs and pumping it at high pressure to other parts of the body  (Brunton, 1990).

The heart has muscles called cardiac muscle that consists of individual cells that are joined together,   (Fozzard, 2000) where the contraction of the cell is resulted from the increase of the calcium concentration thus causing depolarization, thus if one cell is contracted, it creates a wave of depolarization and contraction along with the cardiac muscle  (Gaskin & Mills, 2001).

Depolarization and contraction of the heart are always monitored by the localized cells in the Sino-atrial node  (Ballard, 1997)  (Peters, 1990). These cells have been seen to generate rhythmical depolarization, thus spreading out all over up to the trio-ventricular node where the atria help in pumping blood into the ventricles  (Simon, 2009). The electrical conduction of the cells leads to the division of the heart into left and right branches thus leading to contraction of the ventricles which pumps blood in and out of the pulmonary artery and in that main vein called the aorta.

Lastly, atria refill due to relaxing the condition of the cardiac muscles  (Tabbner & Hughson, 2013) Effects of cardiac disorder on the respiratory system A cardiac disorder that is especially caused by the Congestive Cardiac Failure is seen on other hand to cause respiratory problems since there inadequacy of the blood that is supplied by the heart which has been resulted from the failure of lungs to pump oxygen into the heart via the aorta thus leading to shortness of breath or difficulties when breathing  (Nadar & Lip, 2009).

Also, pulmonary hypertension (PH) mostly affects the lungs i. e. distortion of pulmonary vessels thus leading an increased cardiac output and viscosity of the blood  (Peterchuk, 20044). Definition of Diet controlled diabetes mellitus type 2 Diet controlled diabetes mellitus type 2 is the type of diabetes that is controlled by taking amount Drinking a moderate amount of alcohol or taking that food does not affect the level of glucose in the body  (Mathews, 2008). Pathogenesis of Oedema related to cardiac failure Oedema usually results in inhalation of toxic gases thus resulting in pulmonary Oedema i. e., therefore, Oedema origins from an increase in alveolo-capillary permeability which results to reduce of pressure i. e.

intrathoracic pressure during inspiration which decreases intra-alveolar pressure thus leading blood to accumulate in pulmonary circulation which leads to masking pulmonary arterial hypertension  (Fischer, 2005). Potential nursing diagnosis and management Here is the nursing diagnosis for Mavis, namely; a decrease of cardiac output can be seen due to changes experienced due to changes in the frequency of heart rhythm, impairment of the tissue perfusion resulting from a decrease in the output of the cardiac, while ineffective airway clearance resulting from the secretions accumulation.

If there is acute pain is seen related to a rise or increase in lactic acid if there is imbalanced nutrition, less than what the body requires is caused by the inadequacy of what is eaten. The management option for Mavis are as follows; understanding clinical importance which is based on the impact and prevalence of the disease and whether there is potential for improvement.

The second management option is all about scientific soundness which entails all about the strength of evidence that measures how to improve the care and reliability. She is supposed to adhere to treatment cautions from the doctor i. e. in taking the required food and medicines to ensure her condition is not worsening thus it is decreasing. Additional services Mavis should require on discharge Mavis is required to meet the dietitian after discharge so that she can be given a customized plan for her diet that favors her particular heart condition, and also she should be visiting the doctor regularly and frequently for her checkup, and take caution on labels i. e.

reading labels carefully to ensure that whatever she takes is less of sodium since somebody with heart failure is risky and also ensure she is involved in safe exercise for heart disease. Staff Consideration toward Mavis health Condition Here are the considerations that staffs need to mind when dealing with Mavis i. e. making sure she is free from stress and supporting the emotionally, physiologically, and financially to make her cope with the disease affecting.

Also distribution of duties she should be considered, such that work she is subjected to should be the one that does not affect her health condition.


Anon., 1997. Heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular. Philadelphia: Current Medicine.

Ballard, C., 1997. The heart and circulatory system. Austin, Tex: Raintree Steck-Vaugh.

Brunton, T. L., 1990. Cardiac Disease. Edinburgh: Young J.Pentiland.

Cheriyan, J. & McEniery, C., 2010. Hypertesnsion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fischer, M., 2005. Oedema. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fozzard, H. A., 2000. The heart and Cardiovascular system: scientific foundations. New York: Raven Press.

Gaskin, J. & Mills, E., 2001. The heart. London; New York: F.Watts.

Hosenpud, J. D. & Greenberg, B. H., 2007. Congestive heart failure. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lippman, F. & Sharma, A. K., 2007. Cardiac disease. FT. Lauderdale, Fl: Nova Southeastern.

Mathews, D., 2008. Diabetes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nadar, S. & Lip, G. Y. H., 2009. Hypertension. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peterchuk, D., 20044. Respiratory System. Westport, Conn London: Greenwood Press.

Peters, R., 1990. Bronchial tangle, heart system. Hanover, N.H. : Granite Publications.

Simon, S., 2009. The heart: our circulatory system. New York: Morrwo Junior Books.

Tabbner, A. R. & Hughson, J., 2013. Nursing care: theory and practice. Edinburgh; New York: Churchill Livingstone.

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