'Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment' is a great example of a paper on cancer. Several pieces of literature are available considering the functionalization of silica nanoparticles in cancer treatment. Arakelova et al (2014) have discussed in their studies about nanotechnology and the use of nano-size zinc in the form of ZnO for the treatment of cancer, although there are still obstacles to achieve the same. DC-magnetron has been used by researchers to develop zinc targets in the form of gels for delivery of the drugs. Developments over the zinc nanoparticles are the silica nanoparticles.
Studies by Slowing et al (2009) reflect on the silica-based nanomaterials and their designs that have proved to be useful in controlled release, delivery of drugs and biotechnological applications. Such materials include colloidal, sol-gel, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). In this case, transferrin and cyclic-RGD peptides are attached to the nanoparticles through covalent bonds based on several techniques thereby providing selectivity between primary and metastatic cancer cells (Acton 2013). Zhang et al (2012) in their studies discussed that all amorphous silica is not formed in an equal manner. The level of toxicity from the silica fumes may also vary.
However, the colloidal silica which is obtained from the surface chemistry and framework of the amorphous silica can be developed through high-temperature synthesis followed by thermal quenching. The sol-gel process is used for the synthesis of nano-silica. Pure and homogenous products can be formed by the sol-gel with the process involving metal alkoxides and their hydrolysis and condensation. Mineral acid or base is used as the catalyst in this process. The general flow chart of the process has been shown in the figure below (). Welsher et al (2015) in their studies discussed the adoption of a hard silica coating strategy focused on the assumption that since silica has a three-dimensional covalent structure, long term stability could be provided to the protective layer.
This process has been found to be suitable for tuning of the protein adsorption while the nanoparticles are constructed.
Acton, A. (2013) Beta-Globulins—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition. Georgia: ScholarlyEditions.
Arakelova, E.R. et al (2014) In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin. International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Vol.8, No.1, pp.33-38.
Rahman, I.A.and V. Padavettan (2012) Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nanocomposites—A Review. Journal of Nanomaterials.
Slowing, I.I. et al (2009) Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Reducing Hemolytic Activity Towards Mammalian Red Blood Cells. Small, Vol.5, No.1, pp.57-62.
Welsher, K. et al (2015) Discovery of Protein- and DNA-Imperceptible Nanoparticle Hard Coating Using Gel-Based Reaction Tuning. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.137, pp.580-583.
Zhang, H. et al (2012) Processing Pathway Dependence of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticle Toxicity: Colloidal vs Pyrolytic. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.134, pp.15790-15804.